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Programming Paradigms

The University of Chicago_052921C
[The University of Chicago]

- Overview

A programming paradigm is the concept by which the methodology of a programming language adheres to. It is a way to classify programming languages based on their features. A programming paradigm is also an approach to solving problems by using programming languages. 

Paradigms are important because they define a programming language and how it works. A great way to think about a paradigm is as a set of ideas that a programming language can use to perform tasks in terms of machine-code at a much higher level. These different approaches can be better in some cases, and worse in others. 

A great rule of thumb when exploring paradigms is to understand what they are good at.  While it is true that most modern programming languages are general-purpose and can do just about anything, it might be more difficult to develop a game, for example, in a functional language than an object-oriented language. 

A programming paradigm is a way to classify programming languages based on their features. It's also an approach to solving problems by using programming languages. 
  • Imperative: Uses commands to inspect and update variables, storing state in a program. A combination of commands then creates a procedure. Data abstraction plays a crucial role in data representation, which facilitates loose coupling. 
  • Functional: Based on the execution of a series of mathematical functions, which form the building blocks of the program and perform all manner of tasks. These functional languages avoid flow controls like loops and instead favor recursive functions. 
  • Data-driven: In this paradigm, the program statements describe the data to be matched and the processing required rather than defining a sequence of steps to be taken. 
  • Message passing: The most fundamental paradigm for distributed applications. A process sends a message representing a request, which is delivered to a receiver, which processes the request, and sends a message, if any, in response.


Other programming paradigms include: Procedural, Declarative, Object oriented, Logical, Scripting, Database programming. 

Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. 

A programming paradigm is a classification, style, or approach to programming. It is a method of using programming languages ​​to solve problems. The difficulty of using paradigms varies depending on the language. 

Python is a multi-paradigm programming language that supports different styles of writing code. It can be written in procedural, object oriented, functional or imperative manner. 

For more details, please refer to Wikipedia: Programming Paradigm.


- Native Platforms and Native apps

A native platform is a platform such as Mac or PC that has preinstalled and configured applications. For example, the Photos, Mail, and Contacts applications on every Apple computer are native platforms. 

In mobile web app development, a native app is an application written to work on a specific device platform. Native apps are built for a specific operating system, such as iOS or Android, and use platform-specific programming languages and tools. 

Native apps have the following features: 

  • Performance: Native apps are faster, more responsive, and more interactive than web apps.
  • User experience: Native apps have a smoother user input and output experience, and a consistent look and feel.
  • Security: Native apps have access to platform-specific built-in security features.
  • Offline access: Native apps can often be accessed offline because they store relevant data on your phone.


Native apps are different from cross-platform apps, which work on multiple operating systems.


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