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Biochemistry and Applications

[Technion - Israel Institute of Technology]

- Overview 

If the ultimate goal of chemistry is to understand the world around us at the molecular level, then knowledge of biochemistry -- the chemistry of living organisms -- is clearly the key to making that happen. Biochemistry is a laboratory-based science that combines biology and chemistry. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems. 

Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to study biological processes at the cellular and molecular levels. Biochemistry is the branch of science that explores the interior of living organisms and their associated chemical processes. It emerged as a distinct discipline in the early 20th century, when scientists combined chemistry, physiology and biology to study the chemical properties of living systems.

Biochemistry focuses on processes that occur at the molecular level. It focuses on what happens inside our cells, studying components such as proteins, lipids and organelles. It also studies how cells communicate with each other, such as during growth or fighting disease. Biochemists need to understand how a molecule's structure relates to its function so they can predict how the molecule will interact. 


- Biochemistry: Both Life Science and Chemical Science

Biochemistry is the branch of science in which we study the structure of living organisms and the chemical composition of microorganisms (such as algae), plants, humans and animals. It is a common field of study in medical science. Biochemistry has become the basis for understanding all biological processes. It provides an explanation for the etiology of many diseases in humans, animals and plants.

Biochemistry is both life science and a chemical science - it explores the chemistry of living organisms and the molecular basis for the changes occurring in living cells. It uses the methods of chemistry, physics, molecular biology, and immunology to study the structure and behaviour of the complex molecules found in biological material and the ways these molecules interact to form cells, tissues, and whole organisms.

Biochemists are interested, for example, in mechanisms of brain function, cellular multiplication and differentiation, communication within and between cells and organs, and the chemical bases of inheritance and disease. The biochemist seeks to determine how specific molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, vitamins, and hormones function in such processes. Particular emphasis is placed on the regulation of chemical reactions in living cells.


- The Branches of Biochemistry

Like other disciplines, biochemistry is a broad field of study covering hundreds of organisms, including human blood tests, bodily functions, diet, plant growth, genetic systems, DNA, RNA, cell function, generation, and more.

In general, biochemistry is known for the study of the structure and chemical function of living things, but in detail, it is divided into different branches: immunology, animal biochemistry, enzymology, plant biochemistry, cell biology, metabolism, molecular Biology and Genetics.


- Modern Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of the structure and function of biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Biochemistry is also used to describe techniques suitable for understanding biomolecular interactions and function, including traditional techniques such as Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and chromatographic methods.

Today, the study of biochemistry can be roughly divided into three main areas: 

  • the structural chemistry of the constituents of living substances and the relationship between biological functions and chemical structures; 
  • metabolism, the sum of chemical reactions that take place in living organisms; 
  • processes and chemistry of substances that store and transmit biological information. 

The third field is also the field of molecular genetics, which aims to understand heredity and express genetic information in molecular terms.


 - Biochemistry in Everyday Life

The impact of biochemistry is most pronounced in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. However, biochemistry plays an important role in everyday life, affecting every aspect of society, from retail, food, cosmetics, fashion to healthcare.

Biochemistry is involved in the development of many products and processes that are used every day. These include the discovery and improvement of medical products, cleaning products and recombinant DNA technologies that can be used to make important molecules such as insulin and food additives.

Biochemical and binocular knowledge also helps improve the quality and quantity of food production by improving agrochemicals, developing crops with enhanced pest and disease resistance, and preparing foods that improve human health, including prebiotics, prebiotics, and antioxidants.



[More to come ...]


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