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Management Science and Quantitative Research

McGill University_031422A
[McGill University]


- Overview

Management Science is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting and other fields. 

Management science is characterized by a scientific approach to managerial decision making. It attempts to apply mathematical methods and the capabilities of modern computers to the difficult and unstructured problems confronting modern managers. It is a young and novel discipline. 

Management Science uses a variety of scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods, including mathematical modeling, statistical, and numerical algorithms, to improve organizational formulation of rational and accurate management by deriving optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex decision-making problems decision-making ability. Management science helps businesses achieve their goals using a variety of scientific methods.  

Although its roots can be traced back to problems posed by early civilizations, it was not until World War II that it became identified as a respectable and well defined body of knowledge. Since then, it has grown at an impressive pace, unprecedented for most scientific accomplishments; it is changing our attitudes toward decision-making, and infiltrating every conceivable area of application, covering a wide variety of business, industrial, military, and public-sector problems. 

Management science has been known by a variety of other names. In the United States, operations research has served as a synonym and it is used widely today, while in Britain operational research seems to be the more accepted name. Some people tend to identify the scientific approach to managerial problemsolving under such other names as systems analysis, cost–benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis. 

Today, management science covers any organizational activity in which problems are structured mathematically to generate management-related insights. 

Please refer to the following for more information:


- The Quantitative Approach

The quantitative approach to management uses mathematical and statistical models to simplify systems, processes, and relationships. It applies numeric methods like formulas, statistics, and scheduling models to management problems. The results are used to monitor and improve management decisions. 

The quantitative approach to management focuses on: 

  • Using computers and mathematical techniques to solve complex management issues
  • Developing mathematical and statistical models to represent systems, processes, or relationships
  • Using quantitative techniques to improve decision making
  • Analyzing interrelated variables to select the optimal solution

The quantitative approach to management is a result of research conducted during World War II. It's considered one of the most modern and innovative business theories. 

The quantitative approach to management involves the use of quantitative techniques, such as statistics, information models, and computer simulations, to improve decision making.


[Boston, Massachusetts]

- Management Science and Quantitative Research

Management science is a quantitative approach to decision making that uses the scientific method. It's also known as operations research. Management science is the study of problem-solving and decision-making in organizations. It's applied to problems that concern how to conduct and coordinate the operations within an organization. 

Management science makes extensive use of quantitative analysis. It structures problems in mathematical or other quantitative form in order to derive managerially relevant insights and solutions.

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics. It allows you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses. There are four main types of quantitative research: Descriptive, Correlational, Causal-Comparative/Quasi-Experimental, and Experimental.


- Quantitative Analysis (QA)

Quantitative analysis (QA) is a mathematical approach that uses data to make better decisions and predict trends. It involves: 

  • Collecting and evaluating measurable and verifiable data
  • Using mathematical and statistical models to look at data
  • Examining the numerical occurrence or likelihood of events
  • Applying statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations

The main objective of QA is to use simplified, refined data to make better decisions and forecast trends. 

Quantitative factors are those that can be measured, expressed, or analyzed using numbers. Examples of quantitative factors include: Revenues, Market share, Wages, Market size, Growth rate, Profitability, Margins, Customer retention, Financial ratios. 


- Quantitative Factors and Qualitative Factors

Quantitative factors refer to the measurable, numerical, or statistical data that can be used in the decision-making process of an organization or individual. These factors are objective in nature and can be precisely measured and analyzed. 

Quantitative factors are objective, measurable, and statistical data that can be used in decision-making. They are commonly included in financial analyses. Managers are taught to rely on quantitative factors in their decision-making processes. 

Examples of quantitative factors include: market size, growth rate, profitability, margins, market share, customer retention, financial ratios, assets, liabilities, revenue, price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, cost of production, accuracy of quality control, Timeliness of delivery. 

Qualitative factors are data that can't be measured in terms of numbers. Examples of qualitative factors include: brand reputation, employee morale, product quality, customer satisfaction, investors, competitive advantage, community, management. 


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