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Crop Production and Management

Sweet Corn_111322A
[Sweet Corn - Cornell University]

- Crops

Agriculture is the science concerned with the various processes or methods used to grow different varieties of plants and animal husbandry or animal husbandry according to human needs. 

When plants of the same species are grown in large numbers, they are called crops. Crops are divided according to the season in which they grow:

  • Kharif crops - Kharif crops, also known as monsoon crops or autumn crops, are domesticated plants that are cultivated and harvested in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh during the Indian subcontinent's monsoon season, which lasts from June to November depending on the area. Monsoon rains may begin as early as May in some parts of the Indian subcontinent, and crops are generally harvested from the third week of September to October. Rice, maize, and cotton are some of the major Kharif crops in India. Unlike the Rabi crops, which are grown in the winter, the kharif crops require good rainfall.
  • Rabi crops - Rabi crops, also known as winter crops, are crops that are sown in winter and harvested in spring in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Rabi crops are: wheat, barley, oats, mung beans, mustard, flaxseed. Kharif crops - rice, corn, millet, ragi, beans, soybeans, groundnuts. Complementary to the Rabi crop is the Kharif crop, which is grown after the rabi and zaaid (zaa-id) crops are harvested separately.

 By use, crops fall into six categories: food crops, feed crops, fiber crops, oil crops, ornamental crops, and industrial crops.


[Orchids - Natural World]

- Crop Production Systems

Crop production includes the production and management of row crops such as soybeans, corn, cotton, wheat, and tobacco for profit. Outreach programs in this area focus on challenges faced by crop producers and supporting industries in marketing, integrated pest management, sustainable cultural practices, environmental and human health risks, invasive species, regulations and profitability.


- Crop Management

Adoption of best crop management practices increases crop productivity and contributes to higher yields and improved quality. Crop management is a set of agricultural practices performed to improve the growth, development and yield of crops. It begins with seedbed preparation, seed planting, and crop maintenance; it ends with crop harvesting, storage, and marketing. The timing and sequence of agricultural practices depends on several factors, such as winter or spring crops; harvested products, such as grain, hay, and silage; sowing methods—both seed and row crops; and plant age, soil, climate, and weather conditions.

[More to come ...]

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