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Pharmaceutics, Virology and Vaccinology

[Medicinal Plants and Herbs (The Chelsea Physic Garden has cultivated medicinal plants since 1673. The plant shown here is montbretia (crocosmia aurea), used as a remedy for dysenter) - Wikipedia]

- Pharmaceutics

Pharmaceutics is a multidisciplinary science that examines the development, production and characterization of dosage forms, as well as the disposition and action of drugs in the body. It is the study of relationships between drug formulation, delivery, disposition and clinical response. Pharmaceutics encompasses a molecular evaluation of drug metabolism and transport processes and the study of genetic, environmental and disease-related factors that regulate or perturb those processes, as well as the fundamental mathematical relationships between enzyme/transporter function, blood concentration-time profiles and the spectrum of pharmacological effects.

Pharmaceutics nclude: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacovigilance, Pharmaceutical formulation and Pharmaceutical technology. 


- Virology

Virology is the study of viruses and virus-like agents, including (but not limited to) their taxonomy, disease-producing properties, cultivation and genetics. It is often considered a part of microbiology or pathology. In the early years this discipline was dependent upon advances in the chemical and physical sciences, but viruses soon became tools for probing basic biochemical processes of cells.

It is no accident that virologists have played major roles in the biological revolutions of the last century. Viral gene products engage all the key nodes of biology, ranging from the atomic to the organismal, and thus serve as ideal tools to dissect the most intricate life processes. The challenges are to identify and understand these biological nodes and extrapolate from this information how viruses replicate, disseminate, and sometimes cause disease. Virology in the 21st century will continue to prosper.


- Vaccinology

Vaccinology is the science of vaccines, and historically includes basic science, immunogens, the host immune response, delivery strategies and technologies, manufacturing, and clinical evaluation. More recently, the science has expanded further to include the safety, regulatory, ethical and economic considerations of vaccine development and utilisation. Veterinary vaccines are equally important in the field of vaccinology for their contribution not only to animal health but also to the security of the food supply for humans. Although
traditionally vaccinology has focused on infectious diseases, as we move forward in the 21st century vaccines will also potentially make significant contributions to the control of non-infectious diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and addictions. 

The field of vaccinology continues to expand and innovate in basicscience discovery, product development and implementation, and evaluation of effectiveness. Innate and induced immune regulatory pathways are unraveled, new adjuvants and antigen constructs proven effective, and recently licensed products achieve high coverage, yielding noticeable decreases in disease incidence. These achievements are moving the field forward, with the expectation that many current, challenging diseases—including chronic, noninfectious, and neoplastic - might become vaccine-preventable or vaccine-treatable.




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