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Image Processing

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(US Navy Blue Angels, San Francisco Fleet Week - Jeff M. Wang)
 
 
 

Image Processing

 

Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. 

Image processing is a method to perform some operations on an image, in order to get an enhanced image or to extract some useful information from it. It is a type of signal processing in which input is an image and output may be image or characteristics/features associated with that image. Nowadays, image processing is among rapidly growing technologies. It forms core research area within engineering and computer science disciplines too.

Image processing basically includes the following three steps:

  • Importing the image via image acquisition tools;
  • Analysing and manipulating the image;
  • Output in which result can be altered image or report that is based on image analysis.


There are two types of methods used for image processing namely, analogue and digital image processing. Analogue image processing can be used for the hard copies like printouts and photographs. Image analysts use various fundamentals of interpretation while using these visual techniques. Digital image processing techniques help in manipulation of the digital images by using computers. The three general phases that all types of data have to undergo while using digital technique are pre-processing, enhancement, and display, information extraction.

 

Digital Image Acquisition

 

"Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imply or include the processing, compression, storage, printing, and display of such images. A key advantage of a digital image, versus an analog image such as a film photograph, is the ability make copies and copies of copies digitally indefinitely without any loss of image quality.

Digital imaging can be classified by the type of electromagnetic radiation or other waves whose variable attenuation, as they pass through or reflect off objects, conveys the information that constitutes the image. In all classes of digital imaging, the information is converted by image sensors into digital signals that are processed by a computer and made output as a visible-light image. For example, the medium of visible light allows digital photography (including digital videography) with various kinds of digital cameras (including digital video cameras). X-rays allow digital X-ray imaging (digital radiography, fluoroscopy, and CT), and gamma rays allow digital gamma ray imaging (digital scintigraphy, SPECT, and PET). Sound allows ultrasonography (such as medical ultrasonography) and sonar, and radio waves allow radar. Digital imaging lends itself well to image analysis by software, as well as to image editing (including image manipulation)." -- [Wikipedia]

  

 

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