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Quantum Cryptography and QKD

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Quantum Key Distribution

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method that uses quantum mechanics to create and distribute cryptographic keys. The keys are used to encrypt and decrypt messages between two parties. 

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method for exchanging encryption keys only known between shared parties. It uses properties found in quantum physics to exchange cryptographic keys in such a way that is provable and guarantees security. QKD enables two parties to produce and share a key that is used to encrypt and decrypt messages. Specifically, QKD is the method of distributing the key between parties.

QKD uses the unique properties of quantum mechanical systems to generate and distribute cryptographic keying material. The NIST QKD system transmits a stream of photons to generate a secret key at a rate of 1 million bits per second. 

QKD data is resistant to attack by quantum computers and other powerful computing resources. Because of the unique and fragile properties of photons, any third party who tries to read or copy the photons will change the photons' state. The endpoints will detect the change, alerting them that the key has been tampered with and must be discarded. 

The first QKD protocol, known as BB84, was proposed in 1984 by Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard.


- Quantum Cryptography

Quantum cryptography, also known as quantum encryption, is a cybersecurity method for encrypting and transmitting data. It uses the laws of quantum mechanics to secure and transmit data in a way that cannot be hacked. 

Quantum cryptography uses the same physics principles and similar technology to communicate over a dedicated communications link. It harnesses the unpredictable nature of matter at the quantum level to encrypt and decrypt messages. 

The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution, which offers a secure solution to the key exchange problem. 

Quantum cryptography is considered an essential security solution for safeguarding critical information in the 5G era. For example, Hyundai shipyard set up quantum cryptography communication to protect its defense technology.


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