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Internet, Networks and TCP/IP

(The Internet Network Diagram - Internet, Extranet, and Intranet)


The Internet Revolution is the New Industrial Revolution



- The Internet (Past, Present and Future)

The Internet, a system architecture, has revolutionized mass communication, mass media, and business by allowing various computer networks around the world to be interconnected. 

The Internet, sometimes called the "network of networks," emerged in the United States in the 1970s but did not become visible to the public until the early 1990s. By 2020, approximately 4.5 billion people, or more than half of the world’s population, are expected to be connected to the Internet. 

This number continues to grow, due in large part to the prevalence of "smart" technology and the "Internet of Things," in which computer-like devices connect to or interact with the Internet via wireless networks. These “things” include smartphones, appliances, thermostats, lighting systems, irrigation systems, security cameras. vehicles, even cities.

The Internet provides a capability so powerful and versatile that it can be used for almost any information-dependent purpose, and it is accessible to every individual connected to its constituent networks. 

It supports human communication through social media, electronic mail (e-mail), "chat rooms," newsgroups, and audio and video transmission, and allows people to work collaboratively in many different locations. 

It enables access to digital information from many applications, including the World Wide Web. It turns out that the Internet is the breeding ground for a large and growing number of "e-commerce" (including subsidiaries of traditional "brick and mortar" companies) that conduct most of their sales and services over the Internet.

- The Growth of the Internet

Because the United States Department of Defense backed the development of the networking approach through DARPA, it was dubbed the Department of Defense (DoD) model throughout its development. A protocol stack is used to implement it.

Since the early 1980’s when the U.S. government began to share their network technology with the world, there has been growth on a scale that is hard to imagine and in the early 1980’s there were only 213 registered hosts on the Internet. In 1986, this number had risen to 2,308 hosts. 

According to the Internet society, a non-profit society that studies and promotes the use of Internet there were approximately 500,000 computers or hosts, connected to the Internet in 1990. 

At the mid of 1995, this number grew to estimated 53.85 million. More astounding is the number of people using the Internet. 134 countries had full Internet connection and an additional 52 countries had limited access (for example, e-mail only) in 1996. 

Surveys performed by International Data Corporation and Matrix information and Directory Services found that as of September 1997 there were between 53 and 57 million users of the Internet world wide. By January 1999 there were about 50 million Internet connections worldwide and which were estimated to grow to 200 million by the year 2000. 

Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses a portion of total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks. 


- The Internet and TCP/IP Protocol Suite

Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which is a set of Internet communications protocols that allow digital computers to connect over long distances. 

The Internet is a packet-switched network, which means data is broken into small packets and sent individually through multiple routes at the same time, then reassembled at the receiving end. TCP collects and reassembles packets, while IP ensures that packets are delivered to the correct location.

The Internet Protocol suite specifies how data should be packaged, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received from start to finish. The functionality is divided into four abstraction layers, each connecting all protocols based on their network scope. 

Link layer, which contains communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment (link); Internet layer, which provides interconnection between independent networks; Transport layer, which handles host-to-host communication; Application layer, which provides inter-process communication for applications Data exchange, in order from lowest to highest


- The Internet:  The Largest Network of All

The Internet comprises the network edge and the network core. The network core is the set of interconnected networks that provide wide area connectivity to the customers of the network. The network edge is the set of devices and local networks that connect to the core network. Your computers, TV sets, thermostats, and local network constitute a network edge. Your Internet service provider and its Internet service provider are components of the network core.

Today, The Internet is the largest computer network. It is composed of thousands of smaller networks and connects billions of devices worldwide, handling the majority of data communication that occurs on a daily basis. 

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. TCP/IP, or the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the Internet. TCP/IP can also be used as a communications protocol in a private computer network (an Intranet or an Extranet).

The Internet is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The mobile Internet, automation and AI will have profound implications - for jobs, infrastructure, investment, global competition and more.


- The Internet and Beyond

Initially restricted to military and academic institutions, the Internet now operates on a three-level hierarchy composed of backbone networks, mid-level networks and stub networks. It is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to virtually any point on the planet.

The Industrial Internet is the next frontier. It merges the physical with the digital to predict, control and create systems that produce better outcomes. Through the Industrial Internet, companies will shift from responding to events and will instead use connected machines, big data and analytics to predict and plan, resulting in large gains in industrial productivity, bottom line results and societal outcomes.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) refers to the marriage of physical assets and advanced digital technologies, the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI),  robots, drones, autonomous vehicles, 3D printing, cloud computing, nanotechnology, and more - that communicate, analyze, and act upon information, enabling organizations, consumers, and society to be more flexible and responsive and make more intelligent, data-driven decisions.

People around the world are accessing the Internet with mobile devices. The number of connected devices is soaring. Soon machines will be communicating with each other in the Internet of Things. 

To progress the development of the digital society and make the Internet of Things working, we need a powerful wireless network that can transfer large volumes of data fast. 

Wireless 5G will substantially improve the mobile Internet. LTE is currently the fastest mobile technology available, supporting peak data rates of up to 300 megabits per second (Mbs).   


(The Relation Between Internet, Extranet, and Intranet)

- Intranets and Extranets

Although Intranet and Extranet software are relatively new, they have advanced rapidly within the last 20 years.

Intranets and extranets are both widely used forms of networks, but they differ in many ways. 

Intranets and extranets are both private networks, but they are very different. An intranet is a private, local network that enables employees within an organization to create content, communicate, and collaborate. 

An extranet, on the other hand, is a controlled-access private network that provides authorized customers, vendors, and partners with access to certain parts of the internal network.

 Both types of networks bring huge benefits to organizations, such as cost-effectiveness, ease of communication, collaboration, and enhanced security.

Intranet and Extranet software are full-fledged digital, interactive, collaborative communities for you and your customers. Every action is intuitive.


- Enhance Your Network with Intranets and Extranets

Intranets and extranets are powerful tools for managing the internal and external elements of a business. 

They provide many benefits, such as secure and efficient communication, simplified information sharing, and improved collaboration. However, they can only serve their purpose if implemented correctly. 

To organize your data, maximize efficiency, and provide a seamless user experience, pay attention to your system's architecture and design. 

With the right policies, you can ensure that all your data is easily accessible and secure.


[More to come ...]




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