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Data Transmission on The Internet

TCP-IP Protocol Suite_ScienceDirect_062720A
[TCO/IP Protocol Suite - ScienceDirect]

- Overview

A very basic rule of data (files, e-mails, web pages et-cetera) transmission across the Internet, and actually a distinctive feature of the TCP/IP protocols used to move data, is that data is never transmitted “as such”. 

Instead, it is subdivided in so-called “packets” before transmission. The number of the packets depends on the size of the data. The bigger the file, the more packets will be needed to “represent” the file. 

We could summarize the journey of a file such as an e-mail message or a web page, from computer A to computer B, as follows:


File in computer A –> Subdivided in packets by TCP/IP –> Packets travel, individually, to destination –> 
TCP/IP “remounts” the packets to re-create the original file in computer B –> File in computer B


The crucial thing to understand here, is that at any given time (we re talking about milliseconds), the best route between 2 computers may change. Routers are able to determine, at the moment of sending a particular packet, the best route at this time. When sending the next packet, the best route may be different. Therefore, each packet from the same file could take a different route in order to reach the intended destination.

While files are being transferred between 2 computers, a dialogue goes on between the TCP/IP software of the sender computer and the TCP/IP software on the receiving computer, aimed at ensuring that the file transfer will be successful. 

If for instance a packet is missing on the receiving side, TCP/IP from this computer will send a message to TCP/IP on the sender computer, asking to re-send a particular packet (this is specifically true for the TCP protocol – other protocols such a UDP work differently). 

The dialogue will end when all the packets have reached the destination.


- The Concept of Net Neutrality

This data transmission is closely related to the concept of net neutrality. In a condition of neutrality, all packets are equal, and have the same privileges and the same speed of transmission. In a non-neutral situation, a provider might, for example, limit the bandwidth (or make this bandwidth more expensive), for certain kind of packets, for example those related to peer to peer traffic (file exchange between users), or maybe those related to VoIP traffic, for commercial or other purposes.


- Digital Communication

Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint or multipoint-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radiowave, microwave, or infrared signal.

Data transmission can be analog and digital but is mainly reserved for sending and receiving digital data. It works when a device or piece of equipment, such as a computer, intends to send a data object or file to one or multiple recipient devices, like a computer or server. The digital data originates from the source device in the form of discrete signals or digital bit streams. These data streams/signals are placed over a communication medium, such as physical copper wires, wireless carriers and optical fiber, for delivery to the destination/recipient device. Moreover, each outward signal can be baseband or passband. 

In addition to external communication, data transmission also may be internally carried to a device. For example, the random access memory (RAM) or hard disk that sends data to a processor is also a form of data transmission. 


- Carrier Ethernet 

Ethernet technologies have come a long way and can now provide the same capabilities that were once only available through MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching). Carrier Ethernet is one of the most feasible and practical options for businesses looking forward to upgrading their communication processes, data storage and various other important aspects of the company. 

Below are three essential advantages your business will gain from the use of Carrier Ethernet. 

  • Very Flexible Bandwidth: Carrier Ethernet provides flexible bandwidth increments and the ability to add new services using one technology. It offers superior bandwidth scalability for huge organizations. Carrier Ethernet can quickly switch between 10, 100 to 1000 Mbps for the companies that opt for it. The bandwidth can also be scaled without having the service provider visiting the site. All of the required adjustments can be made by using the software used to control it, located at the Network Operations Center (NOC). 
  • Lower Expenses: Carrier Ethernet provides services at a lower price per MBPS, which increases the value for those with high bandwidth connectivity. Moreover, Carrier Ethernet is also readily available for most locations. 
  • Simple To Implement and Manage: Numerous IT department specialists are experts in Carrier Ethernet service. It is also known to be one of the fastest and expedient alternatives, providing archaic solutions to the users. Carrier Ethernet also comes equipped with innovative tools, which give the users with complete control and the visibility required to perfect the performance of large-scale enterprises that they are working for. This also makes troubleshooting and the system monitoring process a lot easier.


- Wireless 5G

The march toward 5G continues what has been a natural progression of cellular technology innovation dating back to the early 1980s. But the economic impact stuffed into the promise of 5G is making this evolution the most significant. 5G is different from all “G” predecessors in a lot of ways. 5G is not simply a network, but rather an ecosystem that supports vertical applications and industries, enabled by the three use cases: eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband), URLLC/uMTC (Ultra-reliable Low-latency Communication/ultra-reliable Machine-Type Communication), and mMTC (massive Machine-Type Communication" (mMTC).

5G speed is data transmission in real time. The high-frequency bands, known as millimeter wave, don't travel very far - only a few city blocks from cell sites, in many cases - but they can carry a huge amount of data. Downloads in the bands available can approach 2 gigabits-per second, fast enough to download an entire movie almost instantaneously. The 5G era will bring unprecedented and transformative opportunities across industries. 


- Data Transmission Revolution: Quantum Computing and Internet

Travelling Towards a Quantum Internet at Light Speed. A quantum machine could one day drive big advances in areas like artificial intelligence and make even the most powerful supercomputers look like toys. 

Quantum computers are making all the headlines these days, but quantum communication technology may actually be closer to practical implementation. The building blocks for these emerging technologies are more or less the same. They both use qubits to encode information - the quantum equivalent to computer bits that can simultaneously be both 1 and 0 thanks to the phenomena of superposition. 

And they both rely on entanglement to inextricably link the quantum states of these qubits so that acting on one affects the other. But while building quantum computers capable of outperforming conventional ones on useful problems will require very large networks of qubits, you only need a handful to build useful communication networks.



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